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GOLF

 

 

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OUR GOLF PICKS PACKAGES

We offer packages of our GOLF picks for any given extended weekend.  Sometimes we have a single pick in the package - sometimes multiple picks. And sometimes we'll give you picks in several tournaments going on at the same time - men's or women's - regular or senior. We will tell you what the package contains by emailing us.

We suggest that you play each of the picks for an equal amount, unless we tell you otherwise.

 

Our price is just an introductory one - it will rise soon.

We'll try to get your plays to you as soon as is possible by email.  If PayPal notifies us before about 6:30 PM Eastern time on a weekday, or by about 1 PM Eastern time on a weekend day, we'll try to get that day's plays to you before they start. 

If payment notification gets to us after these times, your service generally will start with the next available set of plays. 

  

OUR GOLF PICKS PACKAGES

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GOLF PACKAGES: NAME & ITEM CODE PRICE DESCRIPTION  

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GOLF:  USEFUL LINKS

 

Golf - The New York Times Find news on golf worldwide.
Golf - BBC Sport World golf news from the British Broadcasting Company.
Category: Golf > News and Media
Golf - CBS Sports Features the latest golf news, scoreboards, rankings, schedules, and player profiles.
Golf.com Golf news, instruction, equipment, travel, courses and more
Golf on Yahoo! Sports News, Scores, Standings, Rumors, Fantasy Games - the latest Golf news,
The Golf Channel
Offers live golf scores, news, instruction, tournament coverage, and more.
Cybergolf Features golf news, PGA tour updates, videos, and local golf news..
SI.com - Golf Includes top stories, leaderboards, player profiles, and complete tournament coverage.
GOLFonline From the editors of Golf Magazine and Sports Illustrated. Includes up-to-the minute
leaderboards, instruction from our Top 100 Teachers, equipment reviews, and a golf
course guide.
Golfweek News, scores, and information.
Golf Tips Magazine In-depth instruction and equipment features.
Bad Golf Monthly Online magazine for the golfer whose handicap IS golf.
Inside the Tour Inside the PGA Tour.
GolfTtalk.com Online golf radio show.
Golf - ESPN.com Read ESPN coverage, in association with Golf Digest, of PGA, LPGA, and
Champions golf tours with recent news headlines, tournament updates, statistics,
player profiles, and feature articles.
Category: Golf > News and Media
PGA.com The Professional Golfers' Association of America - PGA.com Open in New Window
Official site for the PGA, providing news, tournament updates, schedules,
instruction info, and more.
Category: Golf Organizations > Professional Golfers' Association
PGA Championship Official site of the PGA Championship. Find events schedule, ticket info, course
guide, and current news.
Category: PGA Tour > PGA Championship
U.S. Open Golf Championship Official site for the U.S. Open golf tournament.
British Open Championship Official site of the British Open, with news, leaderboard, player and course
information, history, and more.
Category: PGA Tour > British Open
The Masters Official site for the Masters golf tournament. Features live results, interviews,
historical facts, layout of Augusta National, and much more.
Category: PGA Tour > The Masters
Golf Digest Noted for its instruction articles, equipment reviews, golf-course ratings, tour
news, photography and commentary.
Category: Golf > Magazines
SwingAdvisor.com Golf forum providing tips and instruction with discussions about golf equipment,
courses, and current events.
Category: Golf > Chats and Forums
Golf - About.com Includes rules of golf, playing and practice tips, equipment reviews, forums, news
and opinion, and more.
Category: Golf
Pgatour.com Follows the PGA Tour.
Golf Etiquette Brush up on golf etiquette to make the game enjoyable for you and those around you.
Fantasy Golf Yahoo! Sports: Fantasy Golf
Free fantasy golf from Yahoo! Sports. Includes player distribution, commentary,
expert analysis, and golfer profiles.
Historical Rules of Golf Each edition since the formation of the Rules of Golf Committee in 1897, to present.
Includes a guide to changes.
Daily Golf Jokes Offers a new joke every day.
 

 

 

 

GOLF:  A HISTORY

 

Golf

 

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Golf is a sport in which a player, using many types of clubs including a driver, a putter, and irons, hits a ball into each hole on a golf course in the lowest possible number of strokes. Golf is one of the few ball games that does not use a standardized playing area; rather, the game is played on golf "courses", each one of which has a unique design and typically consists of either 9 or 18 holes. Golf is defined in the Rules of Golf as "playing a ball with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules"

The first game of golf for which records survive was played at Bruntsfield Links, in Edinburgh, Scotland, in A.D. 1456, recorded in the archives of the Edinburgh Burgess Golfing Society, now The Royal Burgess Golfing Society. The modern game of golf spread from Scotland to England and has now become a worldwide game, with golf courses in the majority of affluent countries.

Golf competition is generally played as stroke play, in which the individual with the lowest number of strokes is declared the winner, or as match play with the winner determined by whichever individual or team posts the lower score on the most individual holes during a complete round.

Golf as a spectator sport has become increasingly popular, with several different levels of professional and amateur tours in many regions of the world. People such as Arnold Palmer, Tiger Woods, Jack Nicklaus, Lorena Ochoa and Annika Sörenstam have become well-recognized sports figures across the world. Sponsorship has also become a huge part of the game and players often earn more from their sponsorship contracts than they do from the game itself.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Etymology

The word Golf was first mentioned in writing in 1457 on a Scottish statute on forbidden games as gouf,[1] possibly derived from the Scots word goulf (variously spelled) meaning "to strike or cuff". This word may, in turn, be derived from the Dutch word kolf, meaning "bat", or "club", and the Dutch sport of the same name. It is often claimed that the word originated as an acronym for "gentlemen only, ladies forbidden".[2] While popular, it should be noted that this is a bacronym.

[edit] History

Main article: History of golf

The most accepted golf history theory is that golf (as practised today) originated from Scotland in the 12th century, with shepherds knocking stones into rabbit holes in the place where the famous Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews now sits.[3] However, the origin of golf is unclear and open to debate.

Scholars have claimed references to a form of golf from hieroglyphs found on stone tablets dating to ancient Egyptian Pharaohs. Chuiwan ("ch'ui" means hitting and "wan" means small ball in Chinese) a game consisting of driving a ball with a stick into holes in the ground was first mentioned in Dongxuan Records (Chinese: ???), a Chinese book of 11th century, and Chinese professor Ling Hongling of Lanzhou University claims that the game was brought to Europe by the Mongols in the 12th and 13th centuries.[4] A Dutch game was mentioned on 26 February 1297 in a city called Loenen aan de Vecht. Here they played a game with a stick and leather ball. Whoever hit the ball into a target several hundreds of meters away the most number of times, won. The Scottish game of gowf was mentioned in two 15th century laws prohibiting its play. Some scholars have suggested that this refers to another game which is more akin to bandy, shinty or hurling than golf.[5] There are also reports of even earlier accounts of a golf like game from continental Europe.[6]

However, these earlier games are more accurately viewed as ancestors of golf, and the modern game as we understand it today originated and developed in Scotland: The earliest permanent golf course originated there, as did the very first written rules, the establishment of the 18-hole course, and the first golf club memberships. The first formalized tournament structures also emerged there and competitions were arranged between different Scottish cities. Over time, the modern game spread to England and the rest of the world. The oldest playing golf course in the world is The Musselburgh Old Links Golf Course.[7] Evidence has shown that golf was played here in 1672 although Mary, Queen of Scots reputedly played there in 1567. In 1646 King Charles I, whilst held captive by the Scots in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, was reported to entertain himself by playing golf in Shieldfield.[8]

As stated, golf courses have not always had eighteen holes. The St Andrews Links occupy a narrow strip of land along the sea. As early as the 15th century, golfers at St Andrews, in Fife, established a customary route through the undulating terrain, playing to holes whose locations were dictated by topography. The course that emerged featured eleven holes, laid out end to end from the clubhouse to the far end of the property. One played the holes out, turned around, and played the holes in, for a total of 22 holes. In 1764, several of the holes were deemed too short, and were therefore combined. The number was thereby reduced from 11 to nine, so that a complete round of the links comprised 18 holes. Due to the status of St Andrews as the golf capital, all other courses chose to follow suit and the 18-hole course remains the standard today.[9]

[edit] International popularity

Golf course in Goa, on the western coast of India

In 2005 Golf Digest calculated that there were nearly 32,000 golf courses in the world, approximately half of them in the United States.[10] The countries with most golf courses in relation to population, starting with the best endowed were: Scotland, New Zealand, Australia, Ireland, Canada, Wales, United States, Sweden, and England (countries with fewer than 500,000 people were excluded). Apart from Sweden, all of these countries have English as the majority language, but the number of courses in new territories is increasing rapidly. For example the first golf course in the People's Republic of China opened in the mid-1980s, but by 2005 there were 200 courses in that country.

The professional sport was initially dominated by Scottish then English golfers, but since World War I, America has produced the greatest quantity of leading professionals. Other Commonwealth countries such as Australia and South Africa are also traditional powers in the sport. Since around the 1970s, Japan, Scandinavian and other Western European countries have produced leading players on a regular basis. The number of countries with high-class professionals continues to increase steadily, especially in East Asia. South Korea is notably strong in women's golf.[11]

In the United States, the number of people who play golf 25 times or more per year fell from 6.9 million in 2000 to 4.6 million in 2005,[12] according to the National Golf Foundation. The Foundation reported a smaller decline in the number who played golf at all; it fell from 30 million to 26 million over the same period.[12]

[edit] Golf course

Main article: Golf course
The famous 17th hole of the TPC at Sawgrass Stadium Course.

Golf is played in an area of land designated a golf course. A course consists of a series of holes, each with a teeing area, fairway, rough and other hazards, and the green with the pin (flagstick) and cup. Different levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty or to allow for putting in the case of the green. A typical golf course consists of eighteen holes, but many smaller courses have only nine.[11][13] Early Scottish golf courses, and similarly designed courses, are mostly laid out on linksland, soil covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches. This gave rise to the common description of a seaside course as a golf links. The turn of the 20th century, with its widespread use of heavy earth-moving equipment, saw a movement toward golf course design with an emphasis on reshaping the land to create hazards, and add strategic interest.[14] Modern golf course design has seen a return to its roots. Architects appreciate once again how to maximize the subtleties in the existing land while tempering how much dirt they move.[15]

[edit] Play of the game

Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A round typically consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout. On a nine-hole course, a standard round consists of two successive nine-hole rounds. Playing a hole on the golf course consists of hitting a ball from a tee on the teeing box (a marked area designated for the first shot of a hole, a tee shot), and once the ball comes to rest, striking it again. This process is repeated until the ball is in the cup. Once the ball is on the green (an area of finely cut grass) the ball is usually putted (hit along the ground) into the hole. The goal of resting the ball in the hole in as few strokes as possible may be impeded by hazards, such as bunkers and water hazards.[11] In most typical forms of gameplay, each player plays his or her ball from the tee until it is holed.

Players can walk or drive in motorized carts over the course, either singly or in groups of two, three, or four, sometimes accompanied by caddies who carry and manage the players' equipment and give them advice.[16]

In stroke play (see below), the score consists of the number of strokes played plus any penalty strokes incurred. Penalty strokes are not actually strokes but penalty points that are added to the score for violations of rules or utilizing relief procedures.

[edit] Par

A hole is classified by its par, the number of strokes a skilled golfer should require to complete play of the hole.[11] For example, a skilled golfer expects to reach the green on a par-four hole in two strokes (This would be considered a Green in Regulation): one from the tee (the "drive") and another, second, stroke to the green (the "approach"); and then roll the ball into the hole in two putts for par. Traditionally, a golf hole is either a par-three, -four or -five; some par-six holes exist, but are not usually found on traditional golf courses.[17]

Primarily, but not exclusively, the par of a hole is determined by the tee-to-green distance. A typical length for a par-three hole ranges between 91 and 224 metres (100–250 yd), for a par-four hole, between 225 and 434 metres (251–475 yd). Typically, par-five holes are at between 435 and 630 metres (476–690 yd), and nontraditional par-six holes are any longer distance. These distances are not absolute rules; for example, it is possible that a 450 metre (492 yd) hole could be classed as a par-four hole, since the par for a hole is determined by its 'effective playing length'. If the tee-to-green distance on a hole is predominantly downhill, it will play shorter than its physical length and may be given a lower par rating. Par ratings are also affected by factors affecting difficulty; the placement of hazards or the shape of the hole for example can sometimes affect the play of a hole such that it requires an extra stroke to avoid playing into the hazard or out-of-bounds.[18]

Eighteen hole courses may have four par-three, ten par-four, and four par-five holes, though other combinations exist and are not less worthy than courses of par 72. Many major championships are contested on courses playing to a par of 70, 71 or 72. In some countries, courses are classified, in addition to the course's par, with a course classification describing the play difficulty of a course and may be used to calculate a golfer's playing handicap for that given course (c.f. golf handicap).[19]

 

[edit] Scoring

In every form of play, the goal is to play as few strokes per round as possible.Scores for each hole can be described as follows:[11]

Term on a
scoreboard
Specific term Definition
-4 Condor (or triple-eagle) four strokes under par
-3 Albatross (or double-eagle) three strokes under par
-2 Eagle two strokes under par
-1 Birdie one stroke under par
0 Par strokes equal to par
+1 Bogey one stroke more than par
+2 Double bogey two strokes over par
+3 Triple bogey three strokes over par

The two basic forms of playing golf are match play and stroke play.

  • In match play, two players (or two teams) play each hole as a separate contest against each other. The party with the lower score wins that hole, or if the scores of both players or teams are equal the hole is "halved" (drawn). The game is won by the party that wins more holes than the other. In the case that one team or player has taken a lead that cannot be overcome in the number of holes remaining to be played, the match is deemed to be won by the party in the lead, and the remainder of the holes are not played. For example, if one party already has a lead of six holes, and only five holes remain to be played on the course, the match is over. At any given point, if the lead is equal to the number of holes remaining, the match is said to be "dormie", and is continued until the leader increases the lead by one hole, thereby winning the match, or until the match ends in a tie. When the game is tied after the predetermined number of holes have been played, it may be continued until one side takes a one-hole lead.[11]
  • In stroke play the score achieved for each and every hole of the round or tournament is added to produce the total score, and the player with the lowest score wins (Stroke play is the game most usually played by professional golfers).

There are variations of these basic principles, including skins, stableford scoring, and team games including foursome and four-ball games.

[edit] Skins

In a skins game, golfers compete on each hole, as a separate contest. Played for prize money on the professional level or as a means of a wager for amateurs, a skin, or the prize money assigned to each hole, carries over to subsequent holes if the hole is tied.

[edit] Stableford scoring

In stableford points play (originated by Dr Frank Stableford, 1870-1959, was first used on 16 May 1932 at Wallasey Golf Club, Cheshire, England) the player gains points for the score achieved on each hole of the round or tournament (1 point for a bogey, 2 points for a par, 3 points for a birdie, 4 points for an eagle). The points achieved for each hole of the round or tournament is added to produce the total points score, and the player with the highest score wins.[11]

[edit] Team play

  • A foursome (defined in Rule 29) is played between two teams of two players each, in which each team has only one ball and players alternate playing it. For example, if players A and B form a team, A tees off on the first hole, B will play the second shot, A the third, and so on until the hole is finished. On the second hole, B will tee off (regardless who played the last putt on the first hole), then A plays the second shot, and so on. Foursomes can be played as match play or stroke play.[20]
  • A four-ball (Rules 30 and 31) is also played between two teams of two players each, but every player plays his own ball and for each team, the lower score on each hole is counted. Four-balls can be played as match play or stroke play.[21]

There are also popular unofficial variations on team play:

  • In a scramble (also known as Ambrose), each player in a team tees off on each hole, and the players decide which shot was best. Every player then plays his second shot from within a clublength of where the best ball has come to rest, and the procedure is repeated until the hole is finished. In a champagne scramble, each player in a team tees off on each hole. The best drive is used and all players play their own ball from this spot. In best ball, each player plays the hole as normal, but the lowest score of all the players on the team counts as the team's score.[22]
  • In a greensome, also called modified alternate shot, both players tee off, and then pick the best shot as in a scramble. The player who did not shoot the best first shot plays the second shot. The play then alternates as in a foursome.[23]
  • A variant of greensome is sometimes played where the opposing team chooses which of their opponent's tee shots the opponents should use. The player who did not shoot the chosen first shot plays the second shot. Play then continues as a greensome.
  • There is also a form of starting called "shotgun", which is mainly used for tournament play. A "shotgun start" consists of groups starting on different holes, allowing for all players to start and end their round at the same time.

[edit] Handicap systems

Main article: Golf handicap

A handicap is a numerical measure of an amateur golfer's ability to play golf over 18 holes. Handicaps can be applied either for stroke play competition or match play competition. In either competition, a handicap generally represents the number of strokes above par that a player will achieve on an above average day.

In stroke play competition, the competitor's handicap is subtracted from their total "gross" score at the end of the round, to calculate a "net" score against which standings are calculated. In match play competition, handicap strokes are assigned on a hole-by-hole basis, according to the handicap rating of each hole (which is provided by the course). The hardest holes on the course receive the first handicap strokes, with the easiest holes receiving the last handicap strokes.

Calculating a handicap is often complicated, but essentially it is representative of the average over par of a number of a player's previous above average rounds, adjusted for course difficulty. Legislations regarding the calculation of handicaps differs among countries. For example, handicap rules may include the difficulty of the course the golfer is playing on by taking into consideration factors such as the number of bunkers, the length of the course, the difficulty and slopes of the greens, the width of the fairways, and so on.

Handicap systems are not used in professional golf. Professional golfers often score several strokes below par for a round and thus have a calculated handicap of 0 or less, meaning that their handicap results in the addition of strokes to their round score. Someone with a handicap of zero or less is often referred to as a 'scratch golfer.'

[edit] Rules and other regulations

The rules of golf[24][25] are internationally standardised and are jointly governed by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews (R&A), which was founded 1754 and the United States Golf Association (USGA). By agreement with the R&A, USGA jurisdiction on the enforcement and interpretation of the rules is limited to the United States and Mexico. The national golf associations of other countries use the rules laid down by the R&A and there is a formal procedure for referring any points of doubt to the R&A.

The Decisions on the Rules of Golf are based on formal case decisions by the R&A and USGA and are revised and updated every other year.

The underlying principle of the rules is fairness. As stated on the back cover of the official rule book: "play the ball as it lies", "play the course as you find it", and "if you cannot do either, do what is fair". Some rules state that:

  • every player is entitled and obliged to play the ball from the position where it has come to rest after a stroke, unless a rule allows or demands otherwise (Rule 13-1)
  • a player must not accept assistance in making a stroke (Rule 14-2)
  • the condition of the ground or other parts of the course may not be altered to gain an advantage, except in some cases defined in the rules
  • a ball may only be replaced by another during play of a hole if it is destroyed (Rule 5-3), lost (Rule 27-1), or unplayable (Rule 28), or at some other time permitted by the Rules. The player may always substitute balls between the play of two holes.[25]

There are strict regulations regarding the amateur status of golfers.[26] Essentially, everybody who has ever received payment or compensation for giving instruction or played golf for money is not considered an amateur and may not participate in competitions limited solely to amateurs. However, amateur golfers may receive expenses which comply with strict guidelines and they may accept non-cash prizes within the limits established by the Rules of Amateur Status.

In addition to the officially printed rules, golfers also abide by a set of guidelines called Golf etiquette. Etiquette guidelines cover matters such as safety, fairness, easiness and pace of play, and a player's obligation to contribute to the care of the course. Though there are no penalties for breach of etiquette rules, players generally follow the rules of golf etiquette in an effort to improve everyone's playing experience.

[edit] Hazards

A bunker is a type of hazard on a golf course. The club may not be grounded prior to making a shot from a bunker. This, along with other restrictions, makes bunker shots difficult for the amateur.
  • Bunkers
Main article: Bunker (golf)

A "bunker" is a hazard consisting of a prepared area from which turf or soil has been removed and replaced with sand. If the ball is in a bunker, the player must play the ball as it lies within the bunker without incuring any penalty strokes. The player can not test the condition of the bunker, nor can the player touch the ground within the bunker with his or her hand or a club. The penalty for grounding is two strokes in stroke play, or loss of hole in match play. (Rule 13-4) [27]

 

  • Water Hazards
Main article: water hazard

A "water hazard" is any sea, lake, pond, river, creek, ditch or anything of a similar nature on the course. If the ball is in a water hazard, the player may play the ball as it lies or, under penalty of one stroke, play a ball from where he or she originally hit; or, under penalty of one stroke, drop a ball at any point along the ball's flight path toward the hazard. (Rule 26-1) [27]

 

  • Lateral Water Hazards
Main article: water hazard

A "lateral water hazard" is a water hazard so situated that it is not possible or impracticle to drop a ball behind the hazard. If the ball is in a lateral water hazard, in addition to the options for a ball in a water hazard, the player may under penalty of one stroke, drop a ball within two club lengths of the point of entry into the hazard; or, under penalty of one stroke, drop a ball on the opposite side of the hazard no closer to the hole. (Rule 26-1) [27]

[edit] Penalties

Main article: Penalty (golf)

Penalty strokes are incurred in certain situations, and can be added on for many different reasons. They are counted towards a player's score as if they were an extra swing at the ball. Strokes are added for rules infractions, or for hitting one's ball into an unplayable situation. A lost ball or a ball hit out of bounds result in a penalty of one stroke and distance.(Rule 27-1) A one stroke penalty is assessed if a players equipment causes the ball to move, or the removal of a loose impediment causes the ball to move.(Rule 18-2) If a golfer makes a stroke at the wrong ball(Rule 19-2), or hits a fellow golfer's ball with a putt(Rule 19-5), the player incurs a two stroke penalty. Most rule infractions lead to stroke penalties, but also can lead to disqualification. Disqualification could be from cheating, signing for a lower score, or from rules infractions that lead to improper play. [27]

[edit] Hitting a golf ball

Animation of the full golf swing.

To hit the ball, the club is swung at the motionless ball wherever it has come to rest from a side stance. Many golf shots make the ball travel through the air (carry) and roll out for some more distance (roll).

Putts and short chips are ideally played without much movement of the body, but most other golf shots are played using variants of the full golf swing. The full golf swing itself is used in tee and fairway shots.

A full swing is a coiling and uncoiling of the body aimed at accelerating the club head to a great speed. For a right-handed golfer, it consists of a backswing to the right, a downswing to the left (during which the ball is hit), and a follow through. The fastest recorded golf club head speed is 217 miles per hour (349 km/h).

The full golf swing is a complex motion that is often difficult to learn. It is common for beginners to spend some time practicing the very basics before playing their first ball on a course. Generally, even once a golfer has attained professional status, a coach is still necessary in order for the player to maintain good fundamentals. Every shot is a compromise between length and precision, and long shots are often less precise than short ones. A longer shot may result in a better score if it helps reduce the total number of strokes for a given hole, but the benefit may be more than outweighed by additional strokes or penalties if a ball is lost, out of bounds, or comes to rest on difficult ground. Therefore, a skilled golfer must assess the quality of his or her shots in a particular situation in order to judge whether the possible benefits of aggressive play are worth the risks.

[edit] Types of shots

Strictly speaking, every shot made in a round of golf will be subtly different, because the conditions of the ball's lie and desired travel path and distance will virtually never be exactly the same. However, most shots fall into one of the following categories depending on the purpose and desired distance:

An approach shot.
  • A putt is a shot designed to roll the ball along the ground. It is normally made on the putting green using a putter, though other clubs may be used to achieve the same effect in different situations. A lag is a long putt designed less to try to place the ball in the cup than simply to move the ball a long distance across the putting green for an easier short putt into the cup.
  • A chip shot is a very short lofted shot, generally made with an abbreviated swing motion. Chip shots are used as very short approach shots (generally within 35 yards/32 meters), as a "lay-up" shot to reposition the ball on the fairway, or to get the ball out of a hazard such as a sand trap. This requires a lofted club, usually a wedge.
  • A pitch or bump and run is a variation of a chip shot, which involves pitching the ball a short distance and allowing the ball to run along the ground with a medium- or high-lofted club using a motion similar to putting.
  • Punch or knock-down shots are very low-loft shots of varying distance. They are used to avoid hitting the ball into overhead obstructions, or when hitting into the wind.
  • A Flop Shot is when a player opens the club face on a chip shot to get the ball to fly over an obstacle and stop quickly when it hits the ground.
  • A drive is a long-distance shot played from the tee or fairway, intended to move the ball a great distance down the fairway towards the green. The driver or 1-wood is used for this shot which is the longest and largest golf club.
  • An approach shot is made with the intention of placing the ball on the green. The term "approach" typically refers to a second or subsequent shot with a shorter-range iron depending on the distance required.
  • Lay-up shots are made from the fairway after a drive or from the rough, but intended to travel a shorter distance than might normally be expected and/or with a higher degree of accuracy, due to intervening circumstances. Most often, a lay-up shot is made to avoid hitting the ball into a hazard placed in the fairway, or to position the ball in a more favorable position on the fairway for the next shot. They are "safe" shots; the player is choosing not to try to make a very long or oddly placed shot correctly, therefore avoiding the risk that they will make it incorrectly and incur penalty strokes, at the cost of requiring one or more additional strokes to place the ball on the green.
  • A draw is when a player shapes a shot from right to left in a curving motion (or left to right for a left-handed player). This occurs when the clubface is closed relative to the swingpath.
  • A hook is a shot which moves severely from right to left (or left to right for a left-handed player). More skilled players can hook the ball at will, but most commonly a hook is a badly misplayed shot that often has negative consequences as a result.
  • A fade is when a player shapes a shot from left to right in a curving motion (or right to left for a left-handed player). This occurs when the clubface is open relative to the swingpath.
  • A slice is a shot which moves severely from the left to right (or right to left for a left-handed player). Similarly to the hook, skillful players can slice the ball when necessary. The slice, however is the most common fault of the average golfer's swing, and it is quite common to see golfer's adjusting to play for it. The loss of distance from playing the slice is usually the extent of the penalty, but slices, especially unexpected ones can get the player into trouble as well.
  • A shank occurs when the club strikes the ball close to the joint between the shaft of the club and the club head, called the hosel, and thus flies at a sharp angle to the right of the intended direction (or to the left, for a left-handed player). It is often called a "lateral" describing the path of the shot. Shanking can become difficult to stop when started.
  • A topped or bladed shot occurs when the forward edge of the club head strikes the ball too high, ie at the center of the ball instead of underneath as intended, and the ball thus flies very low or rolls along the ground.
  • A fat shot, known as a chunk on chips, occurs when the club head strikes the ground behind the ball, making a large divot instead of striking the ball cleanly, causing the shot to come up short of the target.

[edit] Equipment

Main article: Golf equipment

The golfer uses equipment such as golf clubs, golf balls, golf shoes, and golf bags.

In the earliest days of golf, players carved their own clubs and balls from wood, but soon turned to skilled craftsman to produce competitive equipment. 17th century clubs; longnoses for driving, grassed drivers, spoons, niblicks, and a putting cleek had club heads of tough woods such as beech, holly, pear, or apple attached to ash or hazel shafts by leather straps. The Featherie golf ball was introduced in 1618 and endured for more than 200 years. Beginning in 1826, American hickory was imported to Scotland to manufacture shafts, and in 1848 the Featherie was replaced by the Guttie ball. The 19th century saw the introduction of persimmon woods, aluminum irons, steel shafts, the Haskell one-piece rubber cored ball with dimples.[28]

The major changes in equipment since the 19th century have been better mowers, especially for the greens, better golf ball designs, and club design improvements. In the 1970s the use of steel and then titanium to replace wood heads began, and shafts made of "graphite" (also known as carbon fiber) were introduced in the 1980s. Synthetic materials composing the modern ball continue to be developed.[29]

Golf balls are famous for "dimples". These small dips in the surface of the golf ball decrease aerodynamic drag which allows the ball to fly farther.[29] Golf also uses flags, known as the "pin" to show the position of the hole to players when they are too far away from the hole to see it clearly. When all players in a group are within putting distance, the flag, or pin, is removed by a "caddy" or a fellow competitor to allow for easier access to the hole.

[edit] Professional golf

The majority of professional golfers work as club or teaching professionals (pros), and only compete in local competitions. A small elite of professional golfers are "tournament pros" who compete full time on international "tours". Many club and teaching professionals working in the golf industry start as caddies or a general interest in the game, finding employment at golf courses and eventually moving on to certifications in their chosen profession. These programs include independent institutions and universities, and those that eventually lead to a Class A golf professional certification.

[edit] Golf tours

Tiger Woods, the leading professional golfer.[30] and the world's highest paid athlete.

There are at least twenty professional golf tours, each run by a PGA or an independent tour organization, which is responsible for arranging events, finding sponsors, and regulating the tour. Typically a tour has "members" who are entitled to compete in most of its events, and also invites non-members to compete in some of them. Gaining membership of an elite tour is highly competitive, and most professional golfers never achieve it.

The most widely known tour is the PGA Tour, which tends to attract the strongest fields, outside the four Majors and the three World Golf Championships events. This is due mostly to the fact that most PGA Tour events have a first prize of at least US$800,000. The European Tour, which attracts a substantial number of top golfers from outside North America, ranks second to the PGA Tour in worldwide prestige. Some top professionals from outside North America play enough tournaments to maintain membership on both the PGA Tour and European Tour.

The other leading men's tours include the Japan Golf Tour, the Asian Tour (Asia outside Japan), the PGA Tour of Australasia, and the Sunshine Tour (for Southern Africa, primarily South Africa). These four tours, along with the PGA and European Tours, are full members of the trade body of the world's main tours, the International Federation of PGA Tours. Two other tours, the Canadian Tour and the Tour de las Américas (Latin America), are associate members of the Federation. All of these tours, except for the Tour de las Américas, offer points in the Official World Golf Rankings to golfers who make the cut in their events.

Golf is unique in having lucrative competition for older players. There are several senior tours for men 50 and older, the best known of which is the U.S.-based Champions Tour.

There are six principal tours for women, each based in a different country or continent. The most prestigious of these is the United States based LPGA Tour.

All of the leading professional tours for under-50 players have an official developmental tour, in which the leading players at the end of the season will earn a tour card on the main tour for the following season. Examples include the Nationwide Tour, which feeds to the PGA Tour, and the Challenge Tour, which is the developmental tour of the European Tour. The Nationwide and Challenge Tours also offer Official World Golf Rankings points.

[edit] Men's major championships

The major championships are the four most prestigious men's tournaments of the year. In chronological order they are: The Masters, the U.S. Open, The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open) and the PGA Championship.[31]

The fields for these events include the top several dozen golfers from all over the world. The Masters has been played at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia since its inception in 1934. It is the only major championship that is played at the same course each year.[32] The U.S. Open and PGA Championship are played at courses around the United States, while The Open Championship is played at courses in the UK.[33][34][35]

The number of major championships a player accumulates in his career has an impact on his stature in the sport. Jack Nicklaus is considered to be the greatest golfer of all time, largely because he has won a record 18 professional majors, or 20 majors in total if his two U.S. Amateurs are included. Tiger Woods, who may be the only golfer in the foreseeable future likely to challenge Nicklaus's record, has won 14 professional majors (17 total if his three U.S. Amateurs are included), all before the age of 33. (To put this total in perspective, Nicklaus had won 11 professional majors and two U.S. Amateurs by his 33rd birthday, and did not win his 15th professional major until he was 35.) Woods also came closest to winning all four current majors in one season (known as a Grand Slam completed first by Bobby Jones) when he won them consecutively across two seasons: the 2000 U.S. Open, Open Championship, and PGA Championship; and the 2001 Masters. This feat has been frequently called the Tiger Slam.

Prior to the advent of the PGA Championship and The Masters, the four Majors were the U.S. Open, the U.S. Amateur, the Open Championship, and the British Amateur. These are the four that Bobby Jones won in 1930 to become the only player ever to have earned a Grand Slam.

[edit] Women's major championships

Women's golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors. The list of majors recognised by the dominant women's tour, the LPGA Tour in the U.S., has changed several times over the years, with the last change in 2001. Like the PGA Tour, the (U.S.) LPGA[36] has four majors: the Kraft Nabisco Championship, the LPGA Championship, the U.S. Women's Open and the Women's British Open. Only the last of these is also recognised by the Ladies European Tour. The other event that it recognises as a major is the Evian Masters, which is not considered a major by the LPGA (but is co-sanctioned as a regular LPGA event). However, the significance of this is limited, as the LPGA is far more dominant in women's golf than the PGA Tour is in mainstream men's golf. For example, the BBC has been known to use the U.S. definition of "women's majors" without qualifying it. Also, the Ladies' Golf Union, the governing body for women's golf in the UK and Republic of Ireland, states on its official website that the Women's British Open is "the only Women's Major to be played outside the U.S."[37] For many years, the Ladies European Tour tacitly acknowledged the dominance of the LPGA Tour by not scheduling any of its own events to conflict with the three LPGA majors played in the U.S., but that changed in 2008, with the LET scheduling an event opposite the LPGA Championship. The second-richest women's tour, the LPGA of Japan Tour, does not recognise any of the U.S. LPGA or European majors as it has its own set of three majors. However, these events attract little notice outside Japan.

[edit] Senior major championships

Like women's golf, senior (50-and-over) men's golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors. The list of senior majors on the U.S.-based Champions Tour has changed over the years, but always by expansion; unlike the situation with the LPGA, no senior major has lost its status. The Champions Tour now recognises five majors: the Senior PGA Championship, the U.S. Senior Open, the Senior British Open, The Tradition and the Senior Players Championship.

Of the five events, the Senior PGA is by far the oldest, having been founded in 1937. The other events all date from the 1980s, when senior golf became a commercial success as the first golf stars of the television era, such as Arnold Palmer and Gary Player, reached the relevant age. The Senior British Open was not recognised as a major by the Champions Tour until 2003. The European Seniors Tour recognises only the Senior PGA and the two Senior Opens as majors. However, the Champions Tour is arguably more dominant in global senior golf than the U.S. LPGA is in global women's golf.

[edit] Environmental impact

Environmental concerns over the use of land for golf courses have grown over the past fifty years. Specific issues include the amount of water and chemical pesticides and fertilizers used for maintenance, as well as the destruction of wetlands and other environmentally important areas during construction. In response, there has been research into more environmentally sound practices and turf grasses.

[edit] Events

[edit] See also

Find more about Golf on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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[edit] References

  1. ^ ""At the fut bal ande the golf be vtterly criyt done and nocht vsyt"". Dictionary of the Scots Language. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  2. ^ "Urban Legends Reference Page: Golf: Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden?". Snopes.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  3. ^ "Golf History @ ABC-of-Golf". Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  4. ^ golf-information.info
  5. ^ golf-information.info
  6. ^ "Golf - Scots as inventors: a popular fallacy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (2008). Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  7. ^ "The Oldest Playing Golf Course in the World". Retrieved on 2008-07-11.
  8. ^ A Descriptive and Historical Account of the Town and County of Newcastle - By Eneas Mackenzie - page 34
  9. ^ "St. Andrews Links: History". Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  10. ^ "Golf in Europe". VisitEurope.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "Golf". Encarta. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  12. ^ a b Paul Vitello (2008-02-21). "More Americans Are Giving up Golf". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved on 2008-07-07.
  13. ^ "Hilden Park - 9 Hole Golf Course". www.hildenpark.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  14. ^ Golf Club Atlas.com
  15. ^ Golf Club Atlas.com
  16. ^ "Caddie". Encarta. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  17. ^ Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Par". About.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  18. ^ Kelley, Brent. "Golf FAQ - What are the Yardage Guidlines for Par-3s, Par-4s and Par-5s?". About.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  19. ^ Kelley, Brent. "Golf FAQ: What is Slope Rating?". About.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  20. ^ Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Foursomes". About.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-25.
  21. ^ Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Fourball". About.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-25.
  22. ^ Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Scramble". About.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-25.
  23. ^ Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Greensome". About.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-25.
  24. ^ "The Rules of Golf". United States Golf Association. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  25. ^ a b "Rules of Golf" (PDF). The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  26. ^ "Amateur Status". United States Golf Association. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  27. ^ a b c d 2008-2011 Rules of Golf (free download)
  28. ^ http://www.golfeurope.com/almanac/history/
  29. ^ a b Nicholls, David (February 1998). "History of the Golf Club". Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  30. ^ "sportsmed.starwave.com/i/magazine/new/tiger_woods_world.jpg".
  31. ^ "Golf Majors". Sporting-World.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  32. ^ "Golf Majors: The Masters Golf Tournament". Sporting-World.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  33. ^ "Golf Majors: The Open Championship". Sporting-World.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  34. ^ "Golf Majors: The US Open Tournament". Sporting-World.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  35. ^ "Golf Majors: The PGA Championship". Sporting-World.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  36. ^ There are several bodies known as the "LPGA", each based in a different country or continent. The U.S. LPGA is the only one without a geographic identifier in its name, as it was the first to be founded. Typically, if the term "LPGA" is used without an identifier, it refers to the U.S. body.
  37. ^ "Women's British Open breaks new ground at St Andrews". Ladies' Golf Union. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.

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GOLF:  A HISTORY OF GOLF'S GRAND SLAM

Golf's Grand Slam

 

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The Grand Slam in golf is winning all the golf's major championships in the same calendar year.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] The Men's Grand Slam

The Grand Slam in men's golf is an unofficial concept, having changed over time. In the modern era, The Grand Slam is generally considered to be winning all four of golf's major championships in the same calendar year. Before The Masters was founded, the national amateur championships of the U.S and the UK were considered majors along with the two national opens and only Bobby Jones has ever completed a grand slam with these. No man has ever achieved a modern grand slam, Tiger Woods being the closest in winning all four consecutively, but over two calendar years.

The term also refers to a tour tournament, the PGA Grand Slam of Golf, an annual off season tournament contested by the winners of the four major championships.

In annual playing order, the modern major championships are:

  1. April - The Masters (weekend ending 2nd Sunday in April) - hosted as an invitational by and played at Augusta National Golf Club
  2. June - United States Open Championship (US Open) (weekend ending with the 3rd Sunday in June) - hosted by the USGA and played at various locations in the USA
  3. July - The Open Championship (The Open; usually called the "British Open" in the U.S.) (weekend containing the 3rd Friday in July) - hosted by The R&A and always played on a links course at various locations in the UK
  4. August - PGA Championship (USPGA) (4th weekend after The Open) - hosted by the Professional Golfers' Association of America and played at various locations in the USA.

The term "Grand Slam" was first applied to Bobby Jones' achievement of winning the four major golf events of 1930: The Open Championship, the U.S. Open Championship, the United States Men's Amateur Golf Championship and The (British) Amateur Championship. When Jones won all four, the sports world searched for ways to capture the magnitude of his accomplishment. Up to that time, there was no term to describe such a feat because no one had thought it possible. The Atlanta Journal's O.B. Keeler dubbed it the "Grand Slam," borrowing a bridge term. George Trevor of the New York Sun wrote that Jones had "stormed the impregnable quadrilateral of golf." Keeler would later write the words that would forever be linked to one of the greatest individual accomplishments in the history of sports: This victory, the fourth major title in the same season and in the space of four months, had now and for all time entrenched Bobby Jones safely within the "Impregnable Quadrilateral of Golf", that granite fortress that he alone could take by escalade, and that others may attack in vain, forever.

Jones remains the only man to have achieved the grand slam, since before the creation of The Masters and the advent of the professional era, the amateur championships were considered major championships.

The modern definition could not be applied until at least 1934, when the Masters was founded, and still carried little weight in 1953 when Ben Hogan, after winning the Masters, the US Open and The (British) Open, could not compete in the PGA Championship; the nearly concurrent PGA Championship and The (British) Open and the state of transatlantic travel made completing the Grand Slam impossible. Hogan is the only player to have won The Masters, the US and British opens in the same calendar year.

According to Arnold Palmer’s autobiography, "A Golfer's Life," in 1960 he (already having won the Masters and the U.S. Open that year) and his friend Bob Drum (of the Pittsburgh Press) on the trans-Atlantic flight to the Open at St Andrews came up with the idea that adding the British Open and PGA Championship titles that summer would constitute a modern Grand Slam. Drum spread the notion among the gathered media and it caught on.[1]

Tiger Woods has come closest to meeting the modern definition of golf's Grand Slam by holding all four modern major championships simultaneously — the US Open Championship, The (British) Open Championship and the PGA Championship in 2000 and the 2001 Masters — although not in the same calendar year. This has been referred to as a Consecutive Grand Slam or, after the only player to achieve it, a Tiger Slam.[citation needed] In fact, even before Woods accomplished this, there was much debate over the definition of "Grand Slam". Fred Couples said "I don't know how I can put it more simply...if he wins all four, it's a Slam". As noted above, however, because there is no official definition, there is no definitive answer.

Only five golfers have won all four of golf's modern Majors at any time during their career, an achievement which is often referred to as a Career Grand Slam: Gene Sarazen, Ben Hogan, Gary Player, Jack Nicklaus, and Tiger Woods. Both Woods and Nicklaus have three Career Grand Slams, having won each major at least three times.

A number of dominant players of their eras have failed to achieve the Career Grand Slam because of their inability to win a particular major. Sam Snead failed to win a US Open; Arnold Palmer and Tom Watson failed to win a PGA Championship; Lee Trevino failed to win The Masters; Byron Nelson and Raymond Floyd failed to win the Open Championship, which the former competed only once. These shortcomings have been attributed to various factors: a particular major is ill-suited to a player's game (this was cited especially with regard to Trevino and The Masters); the player lacked the ability to fully adapt to that major; the player simply experienced bad luck; or war had led to the cancellation of a major during the player's prime.

[edit] The Women's Grand Slam

Women's golf also has a set of majors. No woman has completed a four-major Grand Slam, but Babe Zaharias won all three majors contested in 1950 and Sandra Haynie won both majors in 1974.

Six women have completed the Career Grand Slam by winning four different majors. There are variations in the set of four tournaments involved as the players played in different eras, and the women's tournaments defined as "majors" have varied considerably over time in a way that has not been paralleled in the men's game. The six are Pat Bradley, Juli Inkster, Annika Sörenstam, Louise Suggs, Karrie Webb, and Mickey Wright. Webb is separately recognized by the LPGA as its only "Super Career Grand Slam" winner, as she is the only one of the group to have won five different tournaments recognized as majors.

Although other women's tours, notably the Ladies European Tour and the LPGA of Japan Tour, recognize a different set of "majors", the U.S. LPGA is so dominant in global women's golf that the phrase "women's majors", without further qualification, is almost universally considered as a reference to the U.S. LPGA majors.

The current four championships are:

  1. March/April—The Kraft Nabisco Championship (week ending in the first Sunday of April)—Founded by Dinah Shore, it is most remembered for the winners taking a "lake jump" into the water surrounding the 18th green, also called the "Green Jacket of the LPGA" in reference to the ceremony held at The Masters. It shares another trait with The Masters—it is held at the same venue every year, Mission Hills Country Club.
  2. June—The McDonalds LPGA Championship Presented by Coca-Cola (week ending second Sunday in June)—hosted by the LPGA and played at various courses throughout its tenure (by picking a course and sticking there for a few years), most recently at Bulle Rock in Havre de Grace, Maryland.
  3. June/July—The U.S. Women's Open (three weeks after the LPGA Championship)—Hosted by the USGA, it is held at various golf courses around the nation. It is considered by some to be the biggest major in the LPGA circuit, despite the fact it is not sanctioned by the Ladies European Tour. It is held at various courses throughout the United States.
  4. August—The Ricoh Women's British Open (the week of the first Sunday of August)—It is hosted by the Ladies' Golf Union and has been hosted at a links course since 2002. 2007 marked the first time it was held at what is considered by many to be the greatest golf course in the world, and certainly the most historic, the Old Course at St Andrews. This is the only championship sanctioned as a major by both the LPGA and the Ladies European Tour.[2]

[edit] The Senior Grand Slam

Senior (i.e., 50 and over) men's golf also has a set of majors. No man has ever won all of the senior majors contested in a year, even in the period between 1980 and 1982 when only two senior majors existed.

Today, a senior Grand Slam would arguably be a greater accomplishment than even the mainstream men's or women's Grand Slam, since senior golf has five majors instead of the four on the other tours.

No man has won all five of the current senior majors in his career. Miller Barber won both of the 1980-1982 senior majors, the Senior PGA Championship and U.S. Senior Open, during that time span, and won the inaugural Senior Players Championship in 1983. Those three tournaments would be the only senior majors until 1989, when The Tradition was first played. Prior to the founding of The Tradition, Arnold Palmer and Gary Player also completed that era's Career Senior Grand Slam. However, neither Barber, Palmer, nor Player would ever win The Tradition.

Jack Nicklaus is the only other player to have completed any era's Career Senior Grand Slam, doing so in his first two years on the Senior Tour (now the Champions Tour). In his first year of eligibility in 1990, he won The Tradition and the Senior Players Championship. The next year, he defended his Tradition title and went on to win the Senior PGA and U.S. Senior Open. However, he failed to complete a calendar-year Senior Grand Slam by failing to defend his Senior Players title. Nicklaus is the only player to have won four different senior majors in his career. Although he never won the Senior British Open, that event was not recognized as a U.S. senior major until 2003, after he had stopped playing the Senior Tour. (Player won the Senior British Open three times before 2003.)

[edit] Notes and references

  1. ^ Cited by: Newport, John Paul (2008-07-19), "Mr. O'Meara's Neighborhood", The Wall Street Journal, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121641207227465979.html?mod=hpp_us_inside_today 
  2. ^ The Evian Masters, held the week before the Women's British Open, is considered a major by the LET, but not by the LPGA. However, the LPGA sanctions it as a regular tour event, and its winner earns an automatic berth in the LPGA's season-ending event, the Stanford Financial Tour Championship (formerly LPGA Playoffs at The ADT).

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